Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Mandai Mangrove


The 15.4-hectare Mandai Mangrove is situated at northwestern Singapore, facing the Western Straits of Johor, and adjacent to the Singapore-Johor Causeway. It is fed by Sungei Mandai Besar to the south and Sungei Mandai Kechil to the north. The mixed stand of mangrove trees are touted as the last of its kind in Singapore, which includes species of Rhizophora, Sonneratia, and Avicennia. Two examples of rare mangrove plants that flourish at Mandai Mangrove – and practically nowhere else on the island – are Brownlowia tersa and Finlaysonia obovata.

While the area is not an important bird roost unlike the nearby Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve (SBWR), its mudlfats – like those at Kranji – are a major feeding ground for both resident and migratory birds. The latter use Singapore as a refueling station on their annual migration, along the East Asian Australasian Flyway, highlighting the importance of Mandai Mangrove. Common migrants include Pacific Golden Plovers (Pluvialis fulva) and Whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus).

Until the late 1980s, Mandai Mangrove was home to villagers and supported seafaring peoples before colonial rule. Remnants of the stilted village still exist and continue to be used by local fishermen. The mangrove forests of Mandai, Lim Chu Kang and Sungei Buloh were connected in the past, but have since become isolated patches. The change in land use was mainly attributed to shrimp pond development and subsequent industrial use, as well as the creation of reservoirs.

Other Resources

ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation. Mandai Mangroves. http://www.arcbc.org.ph/wetlands/singapore/sgp_man.htm. (Accessed August 2012).

Mangrove Action Project. Comparative Guide to Mangroves. http://mangroveactionproject.org/files/Comparative%20Guide%20to%20Mangroves-12Dec06%202.pdf. (Accessed August 2012).

Mangrove Action Squad. Results of Rick's Project for His Honour's Project. http://mangroveactionsquad.wordpress.com/2012/04/19/results-of-ricks-project-for-his-honours-project/. (Accessed August 2012).

National University of Singapore. Sungei Mandai Mangroves. http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/mandai/. (Accessed August 2012).


Friess, D. A., J. Phelps, R. C. Leong, W. K. Lee, A. K. S. Wee, Sivasothi N. & E. L. Webb, 2012. Mandai Mangrove, Singapore: lessons for the conservation of Southeast Asia's mangroves. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 25: 55-65.

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