Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831

Species:K. pulchra
Common Names:Banded Bullfrog
Status:Introduced. Common


The Banded Bullfrog has a rotund body with a relatively small head. Its hind limbs are short and slender, and the tips of its fingers and toes are expanded and blunt. It has a grey or brown back with a broad stripe along each side, which is pale yellow or orange with black edges. A pale yellow or orange band is also present on top of its head between the eyes. It can grow to about 7.5 cm from snout to vent.

Read more about the Anura order.
Read more about the Microhylidae family.


It is widely distributed from India and Sri Lanka, southern China and Indochina, through the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi to the Philippines.


It can be found in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Nee Soon Swamp Forest, Western Catchment, Pulau Semakau, Pulau Tekong and Pulau Ubin.

Locality Map

General Biology

This species is believed to be introduced sometime in the 1800s. Solitary and nocturnal, the Banded Bullfrog inhabits various habitats from built-up areas to forests. Mainly terrestrial, they can also be found high up on tree trunks. This frog will emerge in large numbers to breed after a heavy rain and the calls from the males resemble the bellow of cattle, thus its name.


It feeds on insects, mainly ants.

Life Cycle

This species reproduces throughout the year although aggregation at the breeding grounds depends entirely on rain, with breeding activity increasing during wetter periods. Females can remain reproductively inactive through the dry periods and begin spawning after a heavy rainfall.

Other Resources

Ecology Asia. 2012. Banded Bullfrog. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/banded_bullfrog.htm. (Accessed October 2012).


Baker, N. & K.K.P. Lim, 2008. Wild Animals of Singapore. A Photographic Guide to Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Freshwater Fishes. Draco Publishing and Distribution Pte Ltd and Nature Society (Singapore). 180 pp.

Berry, P.Y., 1964. The breeding patterns of seven species of Singapore anura. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33(2): 227-243.

Lee Grismer, L., 2011. Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago, Peninsular Malaysia. Chimaira Buchhandelsgesellschaft mbH. 239 pp.

Lim, K.K.P. & F.L.K. Lim, 2002. A Guide to the Amphibians & Reptiles of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. 160 pp.

Related Documents

  • Non-indigenous frogs in Singapore.
    NG, T. H. & D. C. J. Yeo (22 Mar 2012)

    The statuses of the non-indigenous frogs in Singapore are reviewed. Out of the 28 species of anurans known in Singapore, four are non-indigenous: Hylarana guentheri (Boulenger), Kaloula pulchra Gray, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw), and Microhyla fissipes Boulenger. The introduction pathways of the frogs are discussed, along with their status, distribution, impacts, and management issues with regard to Singapore.

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