Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus (Boulenger, 1887)

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum/Division:Chordata
Class:Amphibia
Order:Anura
Family:Bufonidae
Genus:Ingerophrynus
Species:I. quadriporcatus
Common Names:Four-ridged Toad
Status:Common

Systematics & Taxonomy

Formerly known as Bufo quadriporcatus.

Description

This species has long paratoid glands, a bright orange-brown body and grows to 6 cm in snout-vent length. It has warty skin and four low ridges on top of its head. Its hind limbs are relatively short and slender, with highly reduced webbing.

Read more about the Anura order.
Read more about the Bufonidae family.

Distribution

This species ranges from Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo.

Localities

It can be found at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Cental Catchment Nature Reserve, Pulau Tekong and Western Catchment.

Locality Map

General Biology

It inhabits swampy areas in both primary and secondary forests and at forest edges. By day, it hides in the leaf litter of, where it will call - “kree-kroo, kree-kroo”, especially before rain. It emerges at night to feed.

Diet

It feeds on insects.

Life Cycle

Tadpoles of this species grow to a total length of about 2.5 cm.

Other Resources

Ecology Asia. 2012. Four-ridged Toad. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/amphibians/four-ridged_toad.htm. (Accessed October 2012).

Haas, A. (editor). 2012. Frogs of Borneo: Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus. http://frogsofborneo.org/Families/bufonidae/quadriporcatus/quadriporcatus.html. (Accessed October 2012).

References

Baker, N. & K.K.P. Lim, 2008. Wild Animals of Singapore. A Photographic Guide to Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Freshwater Fishes. Draco Publishing and Distribution Pte Ltd and Nature Society (Singapore). 180 pp.

Chua, M. A. H. & K. K. P. Lim, 2011. Toads. Pp. 485. In: Ng, P. K. L., R. T. Corlett & H. T. W. Tan (editors). Singapore Biodiversity. An Encyclopedia of the Natural Environment and Sustainable Development. Editions Didier Millet, Singapore. 552 pp.

Lim, K.K.P. & F.L.K. Lim, 2002. A Guide to the Amphibians & Reptiles of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. 160 pp.

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