Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789)

Species:C. livia
Common Names:Rock Pigeon, Rock Dove, Feral Pigeon
Status:Common Resident. Introduced.


Natve in the west Palaearctic,, Africa and the Indian subcontinent, but cosmopolitan by domestication and introduction


Found throughout Singapore and its offshore islands.


The Rock Pigeons in Singapore probably originated from escape birds intended to be sold for food (Hails & Jarvis, 1987). This species was formerly kept as part of the menagerie in the Singapore Botanic Gardens in 1880 (Ridley, 1906). In 1968, 100 were recorded in the vicinity of Victoria Threatre (Ward, 1968). Today, their numbers have increased many folds. The ancestor of the Rock Pigeon originally nested on the ledges of sea cliffs. Thus the birds took to the ledges of city buildings with ease. Food was abundant in grain warehouses and feed mills and they thrived.


Hails, C. J. & F. Jarvis. 1987. Birds of Singapore. Times Edition, Singapore. 168 pp.

Ridley, H. N. 1906. The menagerie at the Botanic Gardens. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 46: 133-194.

Wang, L. K. 2011. Pigeons. Pp. 414. In: Ng, P. K. L., R. T. Corlett & H. T. W. Tan (editors). Singapore Biodiversity. An Encyclopedia of the Natural Environment and Sustainable Development. Editions Didier Millet, Singapore. 552 pp.

Wang, L.K. & Hails, C.J. 2007. An annotated checklist of birds of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 15: 1–179, Singapore.

Ward, P. 1968. Origin of the avifauna of urban and suburban Singapore. The Ibis, 110 (3): 239-255.

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