Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Adinandra dumosa Jack

Species:A. dumosa
Common Names:Tiup-tiup


This is a tree that grows to about 18 m with horizontal branches bearing alternate, simple leaves. The leathery leaves are 7-12 cm with very faint veins. They are pointed upward with a dark green surface and a pale green underside. Young leaves are reddish pink and are a dull scarlet when they are withering.

Flowers are creamy white with petals that do not unfurl. The can occur singly or in small groups, and are produced continuously throughout the year once they begin flowering at 2-3 years old. The fruits are globose, 1-1.5 cm in width, and ripen green to brownish.

Read more about the Ericales order.
Read more about the Pentaphylacaceae family.


Bukit Batok Nature Park, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Central Catchment Nature Reserves, Kent Ridge, Southern Ridges, St John's Island

General Biology

The flowers are pollinated by Carpenter Bees. Fruits are dispersed by fruit bats swallowing the seeds and defecating them in flight.

Ecological Role

This is a slow-growing species but it is able to grow even in the most impoverished places. The Tiup-tiup is common in secondary forests, often the dominating species, but can also be found in the open country.

Human Uses

The wood is hard and is able to withstand fire, which makes it good for firewood. Due to the small sizes of the trees, the timber produced is also small and is used a lot in native houses, pig pens and other smaller structures. When kept dry, the timber is durable.

Other Resources

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research. Tiup-tiup. http://habitatnews.nus.edu.sg/heritage/pasirpanjang/ridgeplants/adinandra.htm. (Accessed September 2011).


Chong, K. Y., H. T. W. Tan & R. T. Corlett, 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 273 pp.

Corlett, R.T., 2011. Tiup tiup Adinandra dumosa. Pp. 484. In: Ng, P. K. L., R. T. Corlett & H. T. W. Tan (editors), Singapore Biodiversity. An Encyclopedia of the Natural Environment and Sustainable Development. Editions Didier Millet, Singapore, 552 pp.

Corner, E. J. H., 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya. Vol. 1–2. 3rd Edition. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur. 861 pp.

Keng, H., 1990. The Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Singapore University Press, Singapore. 222 pp.

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