Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Species:A. marina
Common Names:Api-api Jambu
Status:Critically endangered


Tree of up to 30 m or more tall with aerial stilt roots. Leaves are simple, in opposite decussate arrangement, leathery, midrib prominent but veins inconspicuous, 3-15 x 1-6 cm. Flowers are bisexual, orange-yellow, 6-10 mm wide, with a rancid or foetid smell and in densely grouped heads. Fruits are nearly sphericcal to slightly ovoid in outline, about as long as broad and with a short apical beak.

Read more about the Lamiales order.
Read more about the Acanthaceae family.


Pulau Semakau, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Unum, St John's Island, Sungei Pandan

Locality Map

Human Uses

The wood is used in house building, mine props, furniture, boat building, paneling and occasionally for charcoal making. The wood ash can be used to make soap; the bark for tanning leather; and the seeds are edible after roasting.


Chong, K. Y., H. T. W. Tan & R. T. Corlett, 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 273 pp.

Ng, P. K. L. & N. Sivasothi (eds.), 1999. A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore I. The ecosystem and plant diversity. Singapore Science Centre. 160 pp.

Sosef, M. S. M., L. T. Hong & S. Prawirohatmodjo, 1998. Plant Resources of South-East Asia - No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser Known Timbers. Bogor, Indonesia.

Tomlinson, P. B., 1999,The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press. 419 pp.

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