Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.

Species:B. gymnorhiza
Common Names:Tumu


A tree of 30 m or more tall, it has short buttresses and a bark that is rough, black and fissured. Leaves are simple,  8-22 x 5-10 cm, elliptical, opposite, leathery and an under surface that is often reddish. The stipules that cover the young leaves when in the bud stage are 4 cm long and reddish. Flowers are solitary, up to 3.5 cm long and fruits have a 25 cm long hypocotyl that is cigar-shaped.

Read more about the Malpighiales order.
Read more about the Rhizophoraceae family.


From East Africa (including Madagascar) through Sri Lanka and the Malay Archipelago into Micronesia and Polynesia, northwards to the Ryukyu Islands and southward in tropical Australia.


Chek Jawa, Kranji Nature Trail, Lim Chu Kang, Loyang, Mandai mangroves, Pasir Ris Park, Pulau Semakau, Pulau Tekong, St John's Island, Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, Lim Chu Kang

Locality Map

General Biology

This is a tree of the middle mangrove community.

Human Uses

The wood us used as firewood, to make charcoal and used as house posts and rafters. Leaves and hypocotyls are sometimes eaten after boiling.


Chong, K. Y., H. T. W. Tan & R. T. Corlett, 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 273 pp.

Ng, P. K. L. & N. Sivasothi (eds.), 1999. A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore I. The Ecosystem and Plant Diversity. Singapore Science Centre. 160 pp.

Tomlinson, P. B., 1999,The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press. 419 pp.

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