Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum

Forest Stream

Photo credit: Wang Luan Keng


Forest streams in Singapore are small, shallow (< 1 m), and well-shaded by forest canopy and plants along banks. The stream waters are generally slow-flowing, soft and mildly acidic (pH 5.5-6.0). the bed of these streams are made up of various combinations of clay, sand, or mud, with leaf litter and woody debris. Many forest streams can be found draining the rainforests of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR).

Forest streams in Singapore are less suitable for exotic species to thrive and they form strongholds for native organisms such as aquatic macrophytes, arthropods and fishes. However, it is under threat as some streams have been increasingly acidified, possibly due to acid rain. Such modification in the pH of forest streams could be the cause of a decline in the freshwater crab population of Johora singaporensis.


Forest Stream

Related Documents

Spot any errors? Have any questions? Something to contribute? Email us at dbsthh@nus.edu.sg!
Presented by

Sponsored by