Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758
|Common Names:||Wild Pig, Eurasian Wild Pig, Wild Boar|
This is Singapore’s largest resident terrestrial mammal. The Wild Pig has a stout body with two hoofed toes on each leg (head and body up to 150 cm; tail up to 30 cm). The head is large, with long, curved protruding canine teeth used for digging in the earth, or for defence. They are distinguished from their domesticated counterparts by coarse body hair and a mane of long bristles along their backs which are raised when the animal is alarmed. Its colour varies from blackish to reddish, with the mane in its back being black. The young have thick lateral stripes on its body.
The Wild Pig has by far the largest range of all pigs. It ranges from western Europe to Russia, extending southwards as far as North Africa, the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East, through India, Indo-China, Japan, Taiwan, and South-east Asia.
In Singapore, Wild Pig is common on Pulau Tekong and Pulau Ubin. It has been increasingly sighted on mainland Singapore, including the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Lim Chu Kang, and Western Catchment.
Wild Pigs are active both day and night. While mature males are usually solitary, females and their striped young may form social groups. In Singapore, Wild Pigs inhabit wooded areas, primary and secondary forests. They sometimes venture out to the forest fringes, cleared or agricultural areas, as well as mangroves. In forested areas, Wild Pigs habitually bathe and roll in mud. This habit may help to rid the pigs of parasites, such as ticks and mites, as well as leeches.
Wild Pigs feed on a wide variety of plant and animal material, which includes roots, seeds, worms and even birds’ eggs, if they are encountered on the ground.
The female gives birth to a litter of up to eight young. She builds a nest made of branches, leaves and grass to shelter her young.
Ecology Asia. 2013. Eurasian Wild Pig. http://www.ecologyasia.com/verts/mammals/wild_pig.htm. (Accessed January 2013).
Oliver, W. & K. Leus, 2008. Sus scrofa. In: IUCN, 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed January 2013).
Tan, R. 2008. Wild boar. http://www.wildsingapore.com/wildfacts/vertebrates/mammals/scrofa.htm. (Accessed January 2013).
Chua, M.A.H. & K.K.P. Lim, 2011. Wild pig. Pp. 506. In: Ng, P. K. L., R. T. Corlett & H. T. W. Tan (editors), Singapore Biodiversity. An Encyclopedia of the Natural Environment and Sustainable Development. Editions Didier Millet, Singapore, 552 pp.
Francis, C. M., 2008. A Guide to Mammals of Southeast Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, United Kingdom, 392 pp.